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AJ ALMENDINGER

glimpse into the future of Roblox

Our vision to bring the world together through play has never been more relevant than it is now. As our founder and CEO, David Baszucki (a.k.a. Builderman), mentioned in his keynote, more and more people are using Roblox to stay connected with their friends and loved ones. He hinted at a future where, with our automatic machine translation technology, Roblox will one day act as a universal translator, enabling people from different cultures and backgrounds to connect and learn from each other.
During his keynote, Builderman also elaborated upon our vision to build the Metaverse; the future of avatar creation on the platform (infinitely customizable avatars that allow any body, any clothing, and any animation to come together seamlessly); more personalized game discovery; and simulating large social gatherings (like concerts, graduations, conferences, etc.) with tens of thousands of participants all in one server. We’re still very early on in this journey, but if these past five months have shown us anything, it’s clear that there is a growing need for human co-experience platforms like Roblox that allow people to play, create, learn, work, and share experiences together in a safe, civil 3D immersive space.
Up next, our VP of Developer Relations, Matt Curtis (a.k.a. m4rrh3w), shared an update on all the things we’re doing to continue empowering developers to create innovative and exciting content through collaboration, support, and expertise. He also highlighted some of the impressive milestones our creator community has achieved since last year’s RDC. Here are a few key takeaways:
And lastly, our VP of Engineering, Technology, Adam Miller (a.k.a. rbadam), unveiled a myriad of cool and upcoming features developers will someday be able to sink their teeth into. We saw a glimpse of procedural skies, skinned meshes, more high-quality materials, new terrain types, more fonts in Studio, a new asset type for in-game videos, haptic feedback on mobile, real-time CSG operations, and many more awesome tools that will unlock the potential for even bigger, more immersive experiences on Roblox.

Vibin’

Despite the virtual setting, RDC just wouldn’t have been the same without any fun party activities and networking opportunities. So, we invited special guests DJ Hyper Potions and cyber mentalist Colin Cloud for some truly awesome, truly mind-bending entertainment. Yoga instructor Erin Gilmore also swung by to inspire attendees to get out of their chair and get their body moving. And of course, we even had virtual rooms dedicated to karaoke and head-to-head social games, like trivia and Pictionary.
Over on the networking side, Team Adopt Me, Red Manta, StyLiS Studios, and Summit Studios hosted a virtual booth for attendees to ask questions, submit resumes, and more. We also had a networking session where three participants would be randomly grouped together to get to know each other.

What does Roblox mean to you?

We all know how talented the Roblox community is from your creations. We’ve heard plenty of stories over the years about how Roblox has touched your lives, how you’ve made friendships, learned new skills, or simply found a place where you can be yourself. We wanted to hear more. So, we asked attendees: What does Roblox mean to you? How has Roblox connected you? How has Roblox changed your life? Then, over the course of RDC, we incorporated your responses into this awesome mural.
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Created by Alece Birnbach at Graphic Recording Studio

Knowledge is power

This year’s breakout sessions included presentations from Roblox developers and staff members on the latest game development strategies, a deep dive into the Roblox engine, learning how to animate with Blender, tools for working together in teams, building performant game worlds, and the new Creator Dashboard. Dr. Michael Rich, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School and Physician at Boston Children’s Hospital, also led attendees through a discussion on mental health and how to best take care of you and your friends’ emotional well-being, especially now during these challenging times.
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Making the Dream Work with Teamwork (presented by Roblox developer Myzta)
In addition to our traditional Q&A panel with top product and engineering leaders at Roblox, we also held a special session with Builderman himself to answer the community’s biggest questions.
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Roblox Product and Engineering Q&A Panel

2020 Game Jam

The Game Jam is always one of our favorite events of RDC. It’s a chance for folks to come together, flex their development skills, and come up with wildly inventive game ideas that really push the boundaries of what’s possible on Roblox. We had over 60 submissions this year—a new RDC record.
Once again, teams of up to six people from around the world had less than 24 hours to conceptualize, design, and publish a game based on the theme “2020 Vision,” all while working remotely no less! To achieve such a feat is nothing short of awe-inspiring, but as always, our dev community was more than up for the challenge. I’ve got to say, these were some of the finest creations we’ve seen.
WINNERS
Best in Show: Shapescape Created By: GhettoMilkMan, dayzeedog, maplestick, theloudscream, Brick_man, ilyannna You awaken in a strange laboratory, seemingly with no way out. Using a pair of special glasses, players must solve a series of anamorphic puzzles and optical illusions to make their escape.
Excellence in Visual Art: agn●sia Created By: boatbomber, thisfall, Elttob An obby experience unlike any other, this game is all about seeing the world through a different lens. Reveal platforms by switching between different colored lenses and make your way to the end.
Most Creative Gameplay: Visions of a perspective reality Created By: Noble_Draconian and Spathi Sometimes all it takes is a change in perspective to solve challenges. By switching between 2D and 3D perspectives, players can maneuver around obstacles or find new ways to reach the end of each level.
Outstanding Use of Tech: The Eyes of Providence Created By: Quenty, Arch_Mage, AlgyLacey, xJennyBeanx, Zomebody, Crykee This action/strategy game comes with a unique VR twist. While teams fight to construct the superior monument, two VR players can support their minions by collecting resources and manipulating the map.
Best Use of Theme: Sticker Situation Created By: dragonfrosting and Yozoh Set in a mysterious art gallery, players must solve puzzles by manipulating the environment using a magic camera and stickers. Snap a photograph, place down a sticker, and see how it changes the world.
OTHER TOP PICKS
HONORABLE MENTIONS
For the rest of the 2020 Game Jam submissions, check out the list below:
20-20 Vision | 20/20 Vision | 2020 Vision, A Crazy Perspective | 2020 Vision: Nyon | A Wild Trip! | Acuity | Best Year Ever | Better Half | Bloxlabs | Climb Stairs to 2021 | Double Vision (Team hey apple) | Eyebrawl | Eyeworm Exam | FIRE 2020 | HACKED | Hyperspective | Lucid Scream | Mystery Mansion | New Years at the Museum | New Year’s Bash | Poor Vision | Predict 2020 | RBC News | Retrovertigo | Second Wave | see no evil | Sight Fight | Sight Stealers | Spectacles Struggle | Specter Spectrum | Survive 2020 | The Lost Chicken Leg | The Outbreak | The Spyglass | Time Heist | Tunnel Vision | Virtual RDC – The Story | Vision (Team Freepunk) | Vision (Team VIP People ####) | Vision Developers Conference 2020 | Vision Is Key | Vision Perspective | Vision Racer | Visions | Zepto
And last but not least, we wanted to give a special shout out to Starboard Studios. Though they didn’t quite make it on time for our judges, we just had to include Dave’s Vision for good measure. 📷
Thanks to everyone who participated in the Game Jam, and congrats to all those who took home the dub in each of our categories this year. As the winners of Best in Show, the developers of Shapescape will have their names forever engraved on the RDC Game Jam trophy back at Roblox HQ. Great work!

‘Til next year

And that about wraps up our coverage of the first-ever digital RDC. Thanks to all who attended! Before we go, we wanted to share a special “behind the scenes” video from the 2020 RDC photoshoot.
Check it out:
It was absolutely bonkers. Getting 350 of us all in one server was so much fun and really brought back the feeling of being together with everyone again. That being said, we can’t wait to see you all—for real this time—at RDC next year. It’s going to be well worth the wait. ‘Til we meet again, my friends.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Improving Simulation and Performance with an Advanced Physics Solver

August

05, 2020

by chefdeletat
PRODUCT & TECH
📷In mid-2015, Roblox unveiled a major upgrade to its physics engine: the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS) physics solver. For the first year, the new solver was optional and provided improved fidelity and greater performance compared to the previously used spring solver.
In 2016, we added support for a diverse set of new physics constraints, incentivizing developers to migrate to the new solver and extending the creative capabilities of the physics engine. Any new places used the PGS solver by default, with the option of reverting back to the classic solver.
We ironed out some stability issues associated with high mass differences and complex mechanisms by the introduction of the hybrid LDL-PGS solver in mid-2018. This made the old solver obsolete, and it was completely disabled in 2019, automatically migrating all places to the PGS.
In 2019, the performance was further improved using multi-threading that splits the simulation into jobs consisting of connected islands of simulating parts. We still had performance issues related to the LDL that we finally resolved in early 2020.
The physics engine is still being improved and optimized for performance, and we plan on adding new features for the foreseeable future.

Implementing the Laws of Physics

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The main objective of a physics engine is to simulate the motion of bodies in a virtual environment. In our physics engine, we care about bodies that are rigid, that collide and have constraints with each other.
A physics engine is organized into two phases: collision detection and solving. Collision detection finds intersections between geometries associated with the rigid bodies, generating appropriate collision information such as collision points, normals and penetration depths. Then a solver updates the motion of rigid bodies under the influence of the collisions that were detected and constraints that were provided by the user.
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The motion is the result of the solver interpreting the laws of physics, such as conservation of energy and momentum. But doing this 100% accurately is prohibitively expensive, and the trick to simulating it in real-time is to approximate to increase performance, as long as the result is physically realistic. As long as the basic laws of motion are maintained within a reasonable tolerance, this tradeoff is completely acceptable for a computer game simulation.

Taking Small Steps

The main idea of the physics engine is to discretize the motion using time-stepping. The equations of motion of constrained and unconstrained rigid bodies are very difficult to integrate directly and accurately. The discretization subdivides the motion into small time increments, where the equations are simplified and linearized making it possible to solve them approximately. This means that during each time step the motion of the relevant parts of rigid bodies that are involved in a constraint is linearly approximated.
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Although a linearized problem is easier to solve, it produces drift in a simulation containing non-linear behaviors, like rotational motion. Later we’ll see mitigation methods that help reduce the drift and make the simulation more plausible.

Solving

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Having linearized the equations of motion for a time step, we end up needing to solve a linear system or linear complementarity problem (LCP). These systems can be arbitrarily large and can still be quite expensive to solve exactly. Again the trick is to find an approximate solution using a faster method. A modern method to approximately solve an LCP with good convergence properties is the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS). It is an iterative method, meaning that with each iteration the approximate solution is brought closer to the true solution, and its final accuracy depends on the number of iterations.
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This animation shows how a PGS solver changes the positions of the bodies at each step of the iteration process, the objective being to find the positions that respect the ball and socket constraints while preserving the center of mass at each step (this is a type of positional solver used by the IK dragger). Although this example has a simple analytical solution, it’s a good demonstration of the idea behind the PGS. At each step, the solver fixes one of the constraints and lets the other be violated. After a few iterations, the bodies are very close to their correct positions. A characteristic of this method is how some rigid bodies seem to vibrate around their final position, especially when coupling interactions with heavier bodies. If we don’t do enough iterations, the yellow part might be left in a visibly invalid state where one of its two constraints is dramatically violated. This is called the high mass ratio problem, and it has been the bane of physics engines as it causes instabilities and explosions. If we do too many iterations, the solver becomes too slow, if we don’t it becomes unstable. Balancing the two sides has been a painful and long process.

Mitigation Strategies

📷A solver has two major sources of inaccuracies: time-stepping and iterative solving (there is also floating point drift but it’s minor compared to the first two). These inaccuracies introduce errors in the simulation causing it to drift from the correct path. Some of this drift is tolerable like slightly different velocities or energy loss, but some are not like instabilities, large energy gains or dislocated constraints.
Therefore a lot of the complexity in the solver comes from the implementation of methods to minimize the impact of computational inaccuracies. Our final implementation uses some traditional and some novel mitigation strategies:
  1. Warm starting: starting with the solution from a previous time-step to increase the convergence rate of the iterative solver
  2. Post-stabilization: reprojecting the system back to the constraint manifold to prevent constraint drift
  3. Regularization: adding compliance to the constraints ensuring a solution exists and is unique
  4. Pre-conditioning: using an exact solution to a linear subsystem, improving the stability of complex mechanisms
Strategies 1, 2 and 3 are pretty traditional, but 3 has been improved and perfected by us. Also, although 4 is not unheard of, we haven’t seen any practical implementation of it. We use an original factorization method for large sparse constraint matrices and a new efficient way of combining it with the PGS. The resulting implementation is only slightly slower compared to pure PGS but ensures that the linear system coming from equality constraints is solved exactly. Consequently, the equality constraints suffer only from drift coming from the time discretization. Details on our methods are contained in my GDC 2020 presentation. Currently, we are investigating direct methods applied to inequality constraints and collisions.

Getting More Details

Traditionally there are two mathematical models for articulated mechanisms: there are reduced coordinate methods spearheaded by Featherstone, that parametrize the degrees of freedom at each joint, and there are full coordinate methods that use a Lagrangian formulation.
We use the second formulation as it is less restrictive and requires much simpler mathematics and implementation.
The Roblox engine uses analytical methods to compute the dynamic response of constraints, as opposed to penalty methods that were used before. Analytics methods were initially introduced in Baraff 1989, where they are used to treat both equality and non-equality constraints in a consistent manner. Baraff observed that the contact model can be formulated using quadratic programming, and he provided a heuristic solution method (which is not the method we use in our solver).
Instead of using force-based formulation, we use an impulse-based formulation in velocity space, originally introduced by Mirtich-Canny 1995 and further improved by Stewart-Trinkle 1996, which unifies the treatment of different contact types and guarantees the existence of a solution for contacts with friction. At each timestep, the constraints and collisions are maintained by applying instantaneous changes in velocities due to constraint impulses. An excellent explanation of why impulse-based simulation is superior is contained in the GDC presentation of Catto 2014.
The frictionless contacts are modeled using a linear complementarity problem (LCP) as described in Baraff 1994. Friction is added as a non-linear projection onto the friction cone, interleaved with the iterations of the Projected Gauss-Seidel.
The numerical drift that introduces positional errors in the constraints is resolved using a post-stabilization technique using pseudo-velocities introduced by Cline-Pai 2003. It involves solving a second LCP in the position space, which projects the system back to the constraint manifold.
The LCPs are solved using a PGS / Impulse Solver popularized by Catto 2005 (also see Catto 2009). This method is iterative and considers each individual constraints in sequence and resolves it independently. Over many iterations, and in ideal conditions, the system converges to a global solution.
Additionally, high mass ratio issues in equality constraints are ironed out by preconditioning the PGS using the sparse LDL decomposition of the constraint matrix of equality constraints. Dense submatrices of the constraint matrix are sparsified using a method we call Body Splitting. This is similar to the LDL decomposition used in Baraff 1996, but allows more general mechanical systems, and solves the system in constraint space. For more information, you can see my GDC 2020 presentation.
The architecture of our solver follows the idea of Guendelman-Bridson-Fedkiw, where the velocity and position stepping are separated by the constraint resolution. Our time sequencing is:
  1. Advance velocities
  2. Constraint resolution in velocity space and position space
  3. Advance positions
This scheme has the advantage of integrating only valid velocities, and limiting latency in external force application but allowing a small amount of perceived constraint violation due to numerical drift.
An excellent reference for rigid body simulation is the book Erleben 2005 that was recently made freely available. You can find online lectures about physics-based animation, a blog by Nilson Souto on building a physics engine, a very good GDC presentation by Erin Catto on modern solver methods, and forums like the Bullet Physics Forum and GameDev which are excellent places to ask questions.

In Conclusion

The field of game physics simulation presents many interesting problems that are both exciting and challenging. There are opportunities to learn a substantial amount of cool mathematics and physics and to use modern optimizations techniques. It’s an area of game development that tightly marries mathematics, physics and software engineering.
Even if Roblox has a good rigid body physics engine, there are areas where it can be improved and optimized. Also, we are working on exciting new projects like fracturing, deformation, softbody, cloth, aerodynamics and water simulation.
Neither Roblox Corporation nor this blog endorses or supports any company or service. Also, no guarantees or promises are made regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this blog.
This blog post was originally published on the Roblox Tech Blog.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Using Clang to Minimize Global Variable Use

July

23, 2020

by RandomTruffle
PRODUCT & TECH
Every non-trivial program has at least some amount of global state, but too much can be a bad thing. In C++ (which constitutes close to 100% of Roblox’s engine code) this global state is initialized before main() and destroyed after returning from main(), and this happens in a mostly non-deterministic order. In addition to leading to confusing startup and shutdown semantics that are difficult to reason about (or change), it can also lead to severe instability.
Roblox code also creates a lot of long-running detached threads (threads which are never joined and just run until they decide to stop, which might be never). These two things together have a very serious negative interaction on shutdown, because long-running threads continue accessing the global state that is being destroyed. This can lead to elevated crash rates, test suite flakiness, and just general instability.
The first step to digging yourself out of a mess like this is to understand the extent of the problem, so in this post I’m going to talk about one technique you can use to gain visibility into your global startup flow. I’m also going to discuss how we are using this to improve stability across the entire Roblox game engine platform by decreasing our use of global variables.

Introducing -finstrument-functions

Nothing excites me more than learning about a new obscure compiler option that I’ve never had a use for before, so I was pretty happy when a colleague pointed me to this option in the Clang Command Line Reference. I’d never used it before, but it sounded very cool. The idea being that if we could get the compiler to tell us every time it entered and exited a function, we could filter this information through a symbolizer of some kind and generate a report of functions that a) occur before main(), and b) are the very first function in the call-stack (indicating it’s a global).
Unfortunately, the documentation basically just tells you that the option exists with no mention of how to use it or if it even actually does what it sounds like it does. There’s also two different options that sound similar to each other (-finstrument-functions and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining), and I still wasn’t entirely sure what the difference was. So I decided to throw up a quick sample on godbolt to see what happened, which you can see here. Note there are two assembly outputs for the same source listing. One uses the first option and the other uses the second option, and we can compare the assembly output to understand the differences. We can gather a few takeaways from this sample:
  1. The compiler is injecting calls to __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit inside of every function, inline or not.
  2. The only difference between the two options occurs at the call-site of an inline function.
  3. With -finstrument-functions, the instrumentation for the inlined function is inserted at the call-site, whereas with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining we only have instrumentation for the outer function. This means that when using-finstrument-functions-after-inlining you won’t be able to determine which functions are inlined and where.
Of course, this sounds exactly like what the documentation said it did, but sometimes you just need to look under the hood to convince yourself.
To put all of this another way, if we want to know about calls to inline functions in this trace we need to use -finstrument-functions because otherwise their instrumentation is silently removed by the compiler. Sadly, I was never able to get -finstrument-functions to work on a real example. I would always end up with linker errors deep in the Standard C++ Library which I was unable to figure out. My best guess is that inlining is often a heuristic, and this can somehow lead to subtle ODR (one-definition rule) violations when the optimizer makes different inlining decisions from different translation units. Luckily global constructors (which is what we care about) cannot possibly be inlined anyway, so this wasn’t a problem.
I suppose I should also mention that I still got tons of linker errors with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining as well, but I did figure those out. As best as I can tell, this option seems to imply –whole-archive linker semantics. Discussion of –whole-archive is outside the scope of this blog post, but suffice it to say that I fixed it by using linker groups (e.g. -Wl,–start-group and -Wl,–end-group) on the compiler command line. I was a bit surprised that we didn’t get these same linker errors without this option and still don’t totally understand why. If you happen to know why this option would change linker semantics, please let me know in the comments!

Implementing the Callback Hooks

If you’re astute, you may be wondering what in the world __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit are and why the program is even successfully linking in the first without giving undefined symbol reference errors, since the compiler is apparently trying to call some function we’ve never defined. Luckily, there are some options that allow us to see inside the linker’s algorithm so we can find out where it’s getting this symbol from to begin with. Specifically, -y should tell us how the linker is resolving . We’ll try it with a dummy program first and a symbol that we’ve defined ourselves, then we’ll try it with __cyg_profile_func_enter .
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ cat instr.cpp int main() {} [email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -Wl,-y -Wl,main instr.cpp /usbin/../lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/crt1.o: reference to main /tmp/instr-5b6c60.o: definition of main
No surprises here. The C Runtime Library references main(), and our object file defines it. Now let’s see what happens with __cyg_profile_func_enter and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining.
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -finstrument-functions-after-inlining -Wl,-y -Wl,__cyg_profile_func_enter instr.cpp /tmp/instr-8157b3.o: reference to __cyg_profile_func_enter /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6: shared definition of __cyg_profile_func_enter
Now, we see that libc provides the definition, and our object file references it. Linking works a bit differently on Unix-y platforms than it does on Windows, but basically this means that if we define this function ourselves in our cpp file, the linker will just automatically prefer it over the shared library version. Working godbolt link without runtime output is here. So now you can kind of see where this is going, however there are still a couple of problems left to solve.
  1. We don’t want to do this for a full run of the program. We want to stop as soon as we reach main.
  2. We need a way to symbolize this trace.
The first problem is easy to solve. All we need to do is compare the address of the function being called to the address of main, and set a flag indicating we should stop tracing henceforth. (Note that taking the address of main is undefined behavior[1], but for our purposes it gets the job done, and we aren’t shipping this code, so ¯\_(ツ)_/¯). The second problem probably deserves a little more discussion though.

Symbolizing the Traces

In order to symbolize these traces, we need two things. First, we need to store the trace somewhere on persistent storage. We can’t expect to symbolize in real time with any kind of reasonable performance. You can write some C code to save the trace to some magic filename, or you can do what I did and just write it to stderr (this way you can pipe stderr to some file when you run it).
Second, and perhaps more importantly, for every address we need to write out the full path to the module the address belongs to. Your program loads many shared libraries, and in order to translate an address into a symbol, we have to know which shared library or executable the address actually belongs to. In addition, we have to be careful to write out the address of the symbol in the file on disk. When your program is running, the operating system could have loaded it anywhere in memory. And if we’re going to symbolize it after the fact we need to make sure we can still reference it after the information about where it was loaded in memory is lost. The linux function dladdr() gives us both pieces of information we need. A working godbolt sample with the exact implementation of our instrumentation hooks as they appear in our codebase can be found here.

Putting it All Together

Now that we have a file in this format saved on disk, all we need to do is symbolize the addresses. addr2line is one option, but I went with llvm-symbolizer as I find it more robust. I wrote a Python script to parse the file and symbolize each address, then print it in the same “visual” hierarchical format that the original output file is in. There are various options for filtering the resulting symbol list so that you can clean up the output to include only things that are interesting for your case. For example, I filtered out any globals that have boost:: in their name, because I can’t exactly go rewrite boost to not use global variables.
The script isn’t as simple as you would think, because simply crawling each line and symbolizing it would be unacceptably slow (when I tried this, it took over 2 hours before I finally killed the process). This is because the same address might appear thousands of times, and there’s no reason to run llvm-symbolizer against the same address multiple times. So there’s a lot of smarts in there to pre-process the address list and eliminate duplicates. I won’t discuss the implementation in more detail because it isn’t super interesting. But I’ll do even better and provide the source!
So after all of this, we can run any one of our internal targets to get the call tree, run it through the script, and then get output like this (actual output from a Roblox process, source file information removed):
excluded_symbols = [‘.\boost.*’]* excluded_modules = [‘/usr.\’]* /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libLLVM-9.so.1: 140 unique addresses InterestingRobloxProcess: 38928 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6: 1 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc++.so.1: 3 unique addresses Printing call tree with depth 2 for 29276 global variables. __cxx_global_var_init.5 (InterestingFile1.cpp:418:22) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp.:415:0) __cxx_global_var_init.19 (InterestingFile2.cpp:183:34) (anonymous namespace)::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp:171:0) __cxx_global_var_init.274 (InterestingFile3.cpp:2364:33) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass3::InterestingRobloxClass3()
So there you have it: the first half of the battle is over. I can run this script on every platform, compare results to understand what order our globals are actually initialized in in practice, then slowly migrate this code out of global initializers and into main where it can be deterministic and explicit.

Future Work

It occurred to me sometime after implementing this that we could make a general purpose profiling hook that exposed some public symbols (dllexport’ed if you speak Windows), and allowed a plugin module to hook into this dynamically. This plugin module could filter addresses using whatever arbitrary logic that it was interested in. One interesting use case I came up for this is that it could look up the debug information, check if the current address maps to the constructor of a function local static, and write out the address if so. This effectively allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the order in which our lazy statics are initialized. The possibilities are endless here.

Further Reading

If you’re interested in this kind of thing, I’ve collected a couple of my favorite references for this kind of topic.
  1. Various: The C++ Language Standard
  2. Matt Godbolt: The Bits Between the Bits: How We Get to main()
  3. Ryan O’Neill: Learning Linux Binary Analysis
  4. Linkers and Loaders: John R. Levine
  5. https://eel.is/c++draft/basic.exec#basic.start.main-3
Neither Roblox Corporation nor this blog endorses or supports any company or service. Also, no guarantees or promises are made regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this blog.
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2064: Read Only Memories: Full Review on Switch. (No Spoilers)

TLDR; 7/10. It has a pretty good story, great visual style, decision making that will alter the ending, and it is also LGBT friendly. However, it has some pacing problems, it can get tedious near the end, and there is a random factor to some of the puzzles that may require extensive trial and error. Some of the voice actors also could have used more direction. If you are a fan of point and click adventure games, check this out! Also, it has voice acting from tons of celebrities/Youtubers.


Welcome back to yet another review.Been a while since i've done one. Today we are looking at 2064: Read Only Memories, which is currently on sale for a LOT. Had some left over bucks from picking up Assassins Creed 3 (Will review that later) so picked this up.

This game is a cyber-punk, point and click adventure game set in the future, with lots of themes of identity and life and all that good stuff. Is it worth your time? Lets' find out.

Quick Disclaimer: there are no spoilers in this review:

PREMISE


The plot takes place, as you'd expect from the title, in the year 2064. You play as an (initially) nameless protagonist, working as a freelance journalist reviewing products on the "Mesh." (Internet) In this era you live in, the world is run by a mix of humans and robots, as well as "Hybrids," People who have infused their DNA with animals. One day, a robot by the name of "Turing" enters your home out of nowhere with a message: an old friend of yours, Hayden, has gone missing. Hayden is the creator of Turing, who says that their creator has been kidnapped. Turning is unique, in that they have a personality component unlike any other ROM in the world.

It's up to you to investigate his disappearance, and figure out what is going on: who kidnapped him, and why? What's the deal with Turing, and their unique abilities? From there you investigate areas, talk to people, make decisions and dialogue options, as well as solve puzzles. The plot starts simple, but quickly gets more dark and thematic as you progress.

So, a few things to note. First, this game is suuuuuuuuper heavy on social political stuff. I'm talking gendeidentity, sexuality, etc. There's a lot of little things that you'll find: First, you eventually get to name the protagonist (who is never shown by face) and you can chose pronouns (he,she,they) that you want to go by. So if you identify as non binary, or anything like that, there are options for you. Next, there are several gay/lesbian characters you will encounter. Finally, to go back to the "Hybrid" individuals, these can basically be seen as furries. If any of this bothers you, you may not like this game, but I believe the game is not particular "social justice" or "woke" about any of it: the main story is not really about these things, rather these are sub elements of the world around you. It never bothered me personally, nor did I ever feel that the game developers were trying to shove a message in my face. It didn't feel forced.

So besides that, one important thing to note is that this game has dialogue options and multiple endings. Different outcomes will happen depending on what dialogue options you've chosen. You can choose to be really nice, neutral, or an asshole to everybody. These will all affect the ending later. So the game has replay value in that regard, which is nice. There are also some branching paths in which you can do things in a certain order, or do one thing instead of another. I got... an alright ending? I was nice to everyone but I made some incorrect choices in some areas, so I got the second best ending I would say.

So now that you know all this, is the story good? Yes, honestly! It has lots of twists and turns, the dialogue is pretty good. There's mystery, murder, drama, tension, big reveals, all the good stuff a visual novel/point and click game needs. It's also pretty funny and made me laugh more than once. (Let's just say spoiled milk is the best item ever.)

However, I did have a few small gripes with the story and characters (and no this had nothing to do with their identity or sexuality) First, the story could have been paced a little bit better. There's a lot of... "Busy work" where a character wont do something for you unless you go on some kind of fetch quest for them, or help them with some kind of problem. The story basically just halts here whenever that happens, and it started to annoy me near the end. Sometimes in my reviews, I say that some of these indie games could be longer. This game is actually pretty long, especially for the price (about 10 hours) but it could have been trimmed down in a way that would have benefited the story.

Next, I take issues with Jess, a "Hybrid" character who has the appearance of a cat. This did not bother me, rather her attitude towards the protagonist. Basically, when you meet, you are given dialogue options, and you can choose to be an asshole and make a bunch of cat puns, essentially mocking her. She gets justifiably angry with you for doing so.

But I DID NOT do this, and Jess was STILL angry at me for no reason, she began saying "all you care about is making fun of me," or "you dont care about Hybrids or our identity" when I NEVER DID ANYTHING OF THE SORT. This seems more like a development oversight, like you were expected to be rude to her, but I wasent.. I literally picked every single nice option. so it made Jess seem more like a jerk than anything else. I didnt like her character because of this.. They later explain why she has this attitude, but this shouldnt have happened in the first place if I was never rude to her.

Don't miscounted my issue with Jess to the other characters. They are all interesting and have lots of little quirks that make them funny, or unique. I especially liked Turing, and some other characters (more on why later.)

The worst character, however, is YOU, The protagonist. You are a pretty blank slate if i'm being honest: And I understand why: they wanted to create a character that could identify as any gender (or no gender) so they had to write them in a way to make it super open ended. However, you are the least interesting character in the whole game, and you're more of an observer to the events around you. A part of me wonders if Turing should have been the main character...

Those are really my only major gripes with the story. It's a good narrative, it's a good length, it has lots of mystery and narrative grip, and tons of replay value.

GAMEPLAY:


This is a point and click adventure game where you navigate screens and click on objects. You can interact with the object in many ways, such as using an item on it, interacting with it directly, or speaking to it (which usually does nothing.) You will encounter many puzzles, in which you must use items or pick the correct dialogue to complete it. For the most part, the game is pretty easy: it's clear what you're suppose to do most of the time and it never felt convoluted.

There are some puzzles that have a random generator to it. For example: there's one at the end of the game involving a maze. So it will be different for every player. This is cool, but it's a timed mission, where if you mess up, you have to try again from the beginning. This feels... Unfair, because it's random, and you have no control over how the maze is layed out. However, for the most part it is streamlined and to the point.

As I mentioned earlier, different decisions in dialogue will result in different outcomes. a character may be less willing to help you if you are mean to them. Decisions matter in this game, which is nice.

I don't really have too much to say otherwise on gameplay, because it's pretty simple. Some of the controls for unique sections (like in the maze) can be confusing because the game dosent tell you what button does what, but for the most part it is easy to pick up and play! If you are a fan of older point and click adventure games, or TellTale games (more on that later) you might like this one!

VISUALS, AUDIO, ETC


This is the look and feel of the game. 2064 has a pixelated style to it (which you can see from screenshots) LOTS of Indie games do this, but it works for this one. It compliments the Cyber Punk setting very well. The animations, while limited, are good. Character models are expressive and detailed. The environments look great! Good mix of colors and building structure.

The music is also pretty great, it's atmospheric and well composed. The sound in general is very nice, there's a lot of different effects and things to hear.

I want to highlight the voice acting in particular. If any of you have played Telltale games you might recognize some of the voice actors, mostly from "Walking Dead," such as Melissa Hutchison, who played Clementine, or Adam Harrington, who played Bigby Wolf in "Wolf Among Us"

There are also several Youtubers who lend their voices to this game. NateWantstoBattle, ProZD, and Jim Sterling, among a few others, can be heard voicing the characters. This game did not initially have voice acting, but the Switch version is an updated title to the game that includes it. You can turn off voice acting if you want. Oh, before I forget, in terms of the game on Switch, it crashed on me once randomly, but otherwise I had zero issues in terms of the port.

My only gripe with the voice acting, because mostly everyone does a great job, is the direction on some characters like Lexi. Lexi has a good voice actress, but the way she says her lines is... off. I don't think she was given clear direction on what she was saying. There's a few characters like that. Otherwise, everyone does a good job, both from the professional actors and Youtbers. Nate in particular was pretty funny.

Uhhh what else... There are extras you can view. Concept art, trailers, music, etc. Which is nice.

Annnd I think that's all I have to say:

FINAL THOUGHTS

This was a pretty good game. For 3 bucks, it's a really good deal, especially considering the replay value and content given. The story was really good and I enjoyed it a lot. I liked most of the characters. It looked great, it sounded great, it has replay value... There's a lot to like here. If anything I said interests you, check this game out!

FINAL SCORE: 7/10

Thank you for reading! Check out my other reviews down below!

Resident Evil Revelations 2
Resident Evil Revelations 1
The Coma: Recut
This Is The Police
The Banner Saga Trilogy
Hard West
A Case of Distrust
The Long Reach
No Thing
One Night Stand
Return of the Obra Dinn
Assassins Creed: The Rebel Collection
Ace Attorney Trilogy
submitted by Varrick24 to NintendoSwitch [link] [comments]

Fixing KotFE Part 4 - What's An Alliance Without Allies?

Special thanks again to these two sites for summarising the expansions so I don't have to watch hours of youtube videos or fights thousands of Skytroopers to remember what happened in some of the chapters. They were incredibly helpful and I honestly don't know if I would have bothered finishing this if I didn't have them on hand. Also, if you want to compare and contrast my story to the original, these will probably come in handy.

Introduction

Welcome to Part 4 of Fixing KotFE! Here, I'll be looking at the story after you take over as Alliance Commander which, in my version, occurs in Chapter 6. The story up until this point can be found in Part 3 here.
This is the section where I usually write out my aims but these carry on from Part 3, so I'll save everyone some time there. I'm really happy with some of the changes I made and I think we get some cool concepts that aren't explored in the original so I hope you like it too. However, there is something I'd like to explain that I never really got into. Technically, I guess it would go into the gameplay section but it feels more story-based.
I'd add a prison to the base on Asylum where you can place characters who you decide to capture or imprison. At this point in the story, that would only allow for Senya, if you chose to imprison her, rather than allow her to join the council, however there are other characters in the future who can be held there. I think the prison would be an optional area that you can visit and talk to your prisoners, if you have any. They would say different things depending on your last completed chapter. This would obviously add more voice acting but I think it would help to create a sense of continuity when you can see and talk to these characters you chose t capture. It would also allow Senya to continue being a part of the story, even if you chose not to allow her onto the War Council. It's also just a fun idea that plays well into you being the big boss if you can interrogate your prisoners.
With that little bit out of the way, we'll start with:

Chapter 7: Twin-Tailed Scorpion

Some time has passed since you officially joined, and became the commander of the Alliance. You are called to the war table to discuss a strange broadcast that Theron had picked up. He refuses to tell you more without meeting in person.
You join your war council, who are already in place. As a reminder, this includes:
Theron reveals that he received a distress signal from the very prison you had been imprisoned in for 5 years. Even more peculiar, the signal was only broadcast on channels used by Imperial Intelligence before it was disbanded. Theron warns you that this was probably a trap but Lana points out that you could use some allies on Zakuul. You decide it's strange enough to investigate regardless.
The scene shifts to you being discreetly dropped off within the Old World district of Zakuul, with Hylo explaining that it would be impossible to get you any closer without being spotted, with Arcann having increased security after your escape, increasing the production of the prototype Skytroopers.
You make your way through the Old World where your radio signal is lost. Instead, you are greeted by a strange, robotic voice that begins directing you to a service door in the Old World. You go through the door which shuts and locks behind you and begin making your way back up to the prison, fighting through maintenance and industry droids as you do, all the time being directed by the synthesised feminine voice.
Eventually, you enter the prison once more. However, you are in a different part than before. You continue to receive directions, with doors closing to cut off Knights and allowing you to pass. You are eventually brought to a room. The door opening to reveal SCORPIO, hooked up to a machine and wired into the wall. She speaks to you, introducing herself and explaining the situation (or simply explaining what had happened if speaking to an agent).
SCORPIO explains that, after Arcann's takeover of the galaxy, she allied with him, quickly rising through the ranks to become one of Arcann's most trustworthy allies over the 5 years. However, this was all a ruse so that she could gain information. She planned to sell Arcann's secrets to the highest bidder but was caught before she could leave Zakuul. She was imprisoned and wired into the prison security system, trapped both physically and mentally. However, the Zakuulians underestimated her and within days, she had taken over the system completely. She'd even snark that this wasn't the first prison security system she had taken control of, referencing Belsavis. She explains that she had discovered your location while in the system and had managed to send a message to Lana, allowing her to enact your escape. SCORPIO goes on to add that she had used the security systems to aid you, in the hopes that you would return the favour and free her from her own imprisonment, since the prison was a closed system and she was locked inside. In return, she would join the Alliance, if only to get revenge on Arcann.
You agree to free her and are sent around the prison to deactivate various systems, allowing SCORPIO's escape.As you do so, you see snippets of SCORPIO's most recent memories, showing Arcann ambushing her as she attempts to leave the palace, sadly admitting that he had hoped she wouldn't try to betray him, even after the Scions warned him it would happen. SCORPIO, being her usual self, would respond snarkily, leading Arcann to angrily sentence her to be implemented within the prison security system. You then have to defend SCORPIO's body from Skytroopers and Knights while her consciousness downloads into it once again. As she is freed, explosions rock the prison and SCORPIO smugly explains that it is time for you to leave. Before you can ask how, another explosion causes the cell to break away from the prison complex, letting you freefall towards the planet's surface. You are saved as Hylo's dropship swoops in managing to catch the cell within the cargo bay.
Returning to Asylum, SCORPIO begins to brief everyone on what she knows; to get to Arcann, the infrastructure of Zakuul must be taken down, starting with the Old World, where he has the weakest grip. Arcann rules over the Old World thanks to a shaky alliance with the Scion cult. The Scions essentially rule over the sector by providing Arcann with access to Heskal's prophecies. In turn, only a minimal security force of Skytroopers exists in the Old World. She mentions that the best way to dethrone Heskal and the Scions is to work with one of the rival gangs. Lana adds that she had already established contact with two of the Old World's gangs and that she would need time to set up meetings with the gang leaders.
At this point, you see your first newsreel. It shows two presenters, a male who introduces himself as Adorus Bell and a female, Zelia Myker, sitting at a desk and recounting an act of domestic terrorism by the cell calling itself the Alliance. The Alliance, led by a radical extremist who is believed to be serving Vitiate destroyed a secure complex, killing a number of knights who were protecting the area and almost killing Princess Vaylin, who has been moved to a more secure facility. Thanks to the sacrifices of the Knights, no civilians were injured in the explosion. They then broadcast a message from Emperor Arcann himself, reassuring the people of Zakuul that he will personally capture this Agent of Vitiate and stop the Alliance.
My aim here was to establish SCORPIO with a clear character that fits her personality, keep her selfish amorality and also provide her with a motivation to actually help you, even if she's still secretive and coy about it. She wants revenge on Arcann for pre-empting her betrayal and imprisoning her. she simply thinks that you and your Alliance are the best chance at fulfilling her revenge. SCORPIO's weakness was always her pride. We don't really see that In the proper expansions. Instead, we just got a series of convoluted double crosses and fake outs which were just more confusing than anything and made it seem like she just bounced from one side to the other. I hope to create a more straight forward story For SCORPIO that is still true to the character. I also liked the idea of SCORPIO ending up in a similar situation to when the agent first meets her.
As an extra note, I added the idea of you escaping via SCORPIO ejecting the cell And hylo catching it at the last moment and I Just really think its a fun, silly concept that gets to show off SCORPIO's unique problem solving while selling Hylo as a great pilot.
Lastly, this is where I introduce a new narrative technique. In the original game, we often jump to conversations between Vaylin and Arcann that we, as the character, are not privy to. I think this is a problem since we, as the audience, now know more than our characters do which creates a narrative dissonance to the choices. I understand that the purpose of this was to develop Arcann and Vaylin as characters while we couldn't meet them but I think a better solution would be the newsreels. It lets us see Arcann, in character, and gives us an understanding of what the population of Zakuul are getting in terms of how our actions are portrayed.

Chapter 8: Friends In Low Places

You receive a message from Lana who has contacted two gangs within the Old World. She asks for you to accompany her to meet with the gang leaders and choose which one you'd want to work with. As you travel, you learn from Lana that the Scions are practically untouchable, due to Arcann's aid. The local security chief, Captain Arex, secretly protects them from other gangs in return for Heskal providing Arcann with visions of the future.
The two of you shuttle to the Old World and go to meet with the gangs. The first is a group of anarchists led by Kaliyo known as the Firebrands. They have a plan to blow up a Skytrooper factory and need your help. Theron argues over the radio that the factory is too close to civilians while Lana points out that destroying Arcann's source of troops would hurt the war effort.
You then go to meet the other gang, a group of thieves known as the Old World Kath Hounds, led by Vette, who steal from the rich living in the Spire to give back to people of the Old World. While they have the favour of the people of the Old World, the gang members aren't fighters and wouldn't be able to help much with the war effort. Vette proposes a plan to steal intelligence from the Old World security depot. However, they need your help to distract the security chief and his Skytroopers.
At this point, you have to choose who you will ally with; Kaliyo's Firebrands or Vette's Kath Hounds. Depending on the one you choose, you are sent on a different mission.
For the Kath Hounds, you create trouble, attracting the security forces and fighting off Skytroopers. While they chase you, Vette keeps you informed on the mission's progress as they sneak into the security depot and take what you need, before you are tasked with escaping from the Skytroopers and meet back up with Vette.
Meanwhile, if you chose to aid the Firebrands, you are tasked with placing bombs around supports beneath the droid factory, since the factory itself is too well secured. As you go, you are met by security forces that you have to defeat. As you finish, you rejoin with Kaliyo and watch the bombs go off, causing a section of the Spire to collapse down, much to Kaliyo's delight.
With the mission complete, your chosen gang agrees to aid you against the Scions. Both groups managed to find information on Arex that he was extorting money from civilians within the Old World in return for protection. If this was revealed to those in the Spire, they would demand his imprisonment. However, before you can set up plans, the base is attacked by Captain Arex and a prototype skytrooper design. You and your chosen gang leader fight the two of them. You can then choose to kill Arex, report him or blackmail him for his corruption to either leave his position or work for you.
With your new allies firmly established and Captain Arex dealt with, you join up with either Vette or Kaliyo to assault the Scions' fortress. Without Arex and his skytroopers to defend them, you are able to fight through the Scion forces and reach Heskal. Upon defeating him, you are given the choice to imprison or kill him, leaving your new ally to take control of the Old World.
Another newsreel with the same presenters rolls. The presenters discuss a gang war that had begun in the Old World district, followed by a video of Arcann alongside a woman he introduces as Knight-General Vendryl. Arcann apologises to the people of the Old World for this terrible tragedy and explains that Vendryll will be personally dealing with this new menace.
Speaking to Senya, either in her cell or the war council, will reveal that Vendryll was her second-in-command before her defection and that she is a ruthless individual completely devoted to Arcann.
So, the aim of this chapter is to provide a big choice that actually affects the story, this choice being whether you have Kaliyo or Vette as your advisor for the Old World gangs. There's an obvious light side/dark side binary with Vette's Robin Hood-esque antics obviously being nicer than Kaliyo's terrorism. However, I wanted to make it a bit more complex with Kaliyo actually being the more competent choice, pragmatically. While Vette has the favour of the civilian population, Kaliyo's gang are more competent combatants. This adds a different dynamic than just "Good choice" and "bad choice" but still allows that morality for those who wish to choose it.
The second notable choice is what you do with Arex. I think this is a fun one, since there isn't really a 'nice' answer, with you either handing him over to Arcann, blackmailing him to leave or work for you, or just straight up killing him. I like this as there isn't one 'right' answer.

Chapter 9: Mercy Mission

Koth asks to meet with you privately to talk. You oblige and he explains that he received a message from one of his contacts on Zakuul about a group of anti-Arcann refugees who are high profile targets looking to escape the planet. He planned to go pick them up but wanted to check with you first. You agree to go with him to meet these refugees.
The two of you take a shuttle to meet up with the refugees. There are 5 in total, all with different characters:
However, while down there, you receive word from Theron who has been tracking your movements, believing that he had to be careful after the disappearance of Marr and Satele. He informs you that he received intelligence that one of the refugees is a spy working for Arcaan. You are then tasked with speaking to each of the refugees in an attempt to discover who, if any, is the spy.
After speaking to all of them, you are given a decision: you can bring all of them back with you, accuse one character of being the spy or abandon them all. If you choose to leave the one you believe to be the spy or all of the refugees, you are given the choice to kill or imprison them. If you choose to imprison them, you can also have them tortured for information. Killing or torturing one or all of the refugees will negatively affect Koth's Alliance Influence to varying degrees, while allowing them to come to Asylum with you will positively affect it.
After returning to Asylum, we receive another news report. This time, Zalia is joined by a new host, Brennon Brosnee. The report explains that someone believed to be the Agent of Vitiate kidnapped many of Zakuul's greatest minds in a clear attack on Zakuulian society. Adorus Bell is not mentioned in the report.
This is what I'm calling a 'chill out chapter.' It's pretty short and doesn't have any combat but is more about player choice and character interactions. Your decisions in this chapter also have long-reaching effects as, in later chapters, Koth may leave the Alliance due to your choices here. If you do allow the spy onto Asylum, this will also affect the story later on.
I think, overall, this is a fun, short chapter which mixes things up from the longer ones that come before and after. It's fun, it's interesting. It's different and you don't even fight any Skytroopers! It would also be a good way to get a different perspective on Arcann's rule from the people of Zakuul themselves. On a technical side, this sort of 'bottle episode' type concept would allow the developers to spend more time on later chapters while still keeping a consistent schedule.

Chapter 10: The Lost Masters

Theron is finally able to decipher the information he took from the gangsters when you rescued him (see Chapter 6 for more info).
He explains that they are coordinates to a remote planet called Odessen within Wild Space. Lana adds that the planet seems to be unpopulated but shows all sorts of strange readings. She agrees that you should go investigate the landing coordinates with Theron.
When you land on Odessen, you find it to be a lush, fertile and wild planet. However, you also find a campsite and begin to investigate. You are met by Satele who explains that they had been awaiting your arrival. She invites the two of you to sit down and talk. As you do, she explains that she and Darth Marr had sensed a strong dark side presence on Odessen and had come to investigate. What they found was an entire compound controlled by the followers of Vitiate, hoping to revive him.
The two of them realised at this point that Vitiate's forces were more numerous and covert than either of them had believed, and resolved to stay on Odessen until the compound could be destroyed. Satele explains that they had learnt from their experiences with the Revanites and agreed that they could not trust even those in the Alliance in case it was compromised. However, Satele did leave a clue, saying that she knew Theron would be able to decipher it and bring you here. When you ask of Marr's location, Satele explains that they take turns keeping watch before noting that he should have been back by now. Suddenly, the camp is attacked by dark side beasts and the three of you fight them off. Once they're defeated, Satele states that Marr should have seen them coming and that he must be in danger. You head into the forest with her, leaving Theron to protect the ship.
You travel with Satele through the jungle of Odessen to reach the compound, fighting through local wildlife as well as mutated Sith beasts. As you approach, Satele suggests you sneak in while she distracts the cultists. You agree and Satele splits off from you as you make your way into the compound that seems like a fortress. You fight through a mixture of sith beasts and cultists loyal to Vitiate, mostly Sith. As you go, you hear Darth Marr and approach his location. A member of the (former) Emperor's Hand, Servant 11, is interrogating an unmasked and kneeling Marr who refuses to give up any information on Satele, surrounded by members of the Emperor's Guard. As you enter, Marr takes the chance to attack the guards, taking one of their pikes and impaling them upon it. He grabs his mask and lightsaber before the two of you fight the rest of the Emperor's Guards together until only Servant 11 is left. Marr starts interrogating Servant 11 on the cult's activities with you being able to act as the 'good cop' to his bad cop or reinforce Marr's bloodthirst.. Servant 11 smugly declares that there are plans in motion that will bring a new era of Vitiate's power. Marr then kills Servant 11.
Sidenote: I think this scene could go a couple of ways. We could finally get a Darth Marr face reveal or the scene could be shot in such a way that we never actually see his face until he retrieves the mask and puts it back on. I prefer the second because I just think it's a really fun concept for the scene.
You plan to escape with Marr but he refuses, stating that all remnants of the Emperor's filth must be cleansed from this place. You agree and travel with him, killing more cultists and making your way to a large room with a strange Sith holocron on it. Marr informs you that the holocron is a Reliquary, an artifact containing a fraction of Vitiate's presence and an item of Sith Sorcery. He explains that it absorbs the Force released by beings as they die and would eventually resurrect Vitiate if given the chance. With this said, Marr draws his lightsaber and impales the Reliquary, causing purple energy to blast out from within. The two of you then meet up with Satele and Theron to talk.
You discuss with the three of them on whether Satele and Marr should return to the Alliance. Satele agrees to join you but Marr states that he must ensure that the cult is completely destroyed before returning. You agree and leave the planet with Satele and Theron.
You return to Asylum and get the usual newsreel. However, since you haven't actually done anything that they know of, the news is instead about preparation for an upcoming event: Liberty Day, a yearly day of celebration in honour of Valkorion's forces defeating Vitiate and his Sith long ago. The two hosts discuss what Emperor Arcann could be planning for this year's Liberty Day, which would be happening in the coming months, and point out that the increased security provided by the Knights and Skytroopers will stop the Agents of Vitiate from stopping such an auspicious occasion.
So, I wanted to do a few things in this chapter: Firstly, I wanted to bring back Satele and Marr and, with Marr not being dead in my version, have them both do some cool stuff and show off a bit. In fact, my sequence with Marr is heavily based on his moment in the original story, shortly before he gets fucking gutted. I also wanted to be a bit fan-servicey with Marr's whole mask thing and I really love the idea that we never actually see him unmasked. On a slight tangent, I've just realised that, in the original expansion, Marr is just… left in his armour after being captured. Surely if you wake someone prisoner, you'd take their badass, technologically advanced battle armour off them, right? I suppose it's because they wanted him to be recognisable as Darth Marr still but it seems strange, not only from a literal point of view but a metaphorical one too. Stripping Marr of his armour signifies that he isn't some unstoppable machine but a man, and when he then fights back and kills Valkorion/Vitiate's minions, (in either version of the story) it shows that, as a man, he is able to overcome these greater odds.
I'd also want there to be some honest interactions between Theron and Satele, maybe having Satele actually show pride in Theron and what he's become. In the original story, I don't think Theron even meets her in these expansions, since you go to see her alone and then she just leaves. It honestly is just bizarre to me that you have two characters who are mother and son with a strained relationship (in an expansion that revolves very heavily about family ties, none-the-less) and they never interact. I think having Satele and Theron repair their relationship a bit would be good story progression and an interesting route for both their characters, especially if Satele is going a bit AWOL from the Jedi teachings, which she already was in the original version.
Secondly, I wanted to implement the Cult of Vitiate as antagonists. Since Valkorion isn't just Vitiate in a meat suit in this version, he should definitely have his own thing going. I also want this to be more of a thing later on, so I think it's good to plant the seed here.
Thirdly, I wanted to introduce Odessen as a location. Asylum being the home of the Alliance gives us a chance to make Odessen a little more interesting than 'the place you decided to just make a base'. Again, this will come back later in the story.
Lastly, I think this newsreel is a fun one. It's something light-hearted and unrelated to you and has the irony of Arcann pushing this 'Liberty Day' when he has taken over the entire Galaxy.

Chapter 11: Twists of Fate

With Satele back in the Alliance, things are running more smoothly. She calls you to join her to talk. When you meet with her, she is alone in the council room. She asks you to join her on a walk.
Satele explains that she has some errands to run on the station and asks you to help. Regardless of your answer, she begins leading you deeper into the underbelly of the station to meet a friend of hers. Before you reach your target, you are pickpocketed by a young boy who runs into a back alley. The two of you follow the thief and catch him. He explains that he has to steal in order to make enough money to feed himself and his sister and that if he doesn't return with something, his boss will throw them out. You are then given a choice to take your credits back, kill the boy or recruit him to the Alliance. Whichever choice you choose, the boy pleads with you to save his sister who is being held by a gang known as the Engineers. Satele admits that the Engineers have caused problems for the Alliance in the past, but are the only ones able to keep Asylum running. You decide to go and deal with them.
As you make your way down into the lower levels of Asylum, you are split off from Satele and are contacted by Valkorion once again. He apologises for possessing you and explains that doing so used up his energy and he was forced to retreat into your subconscious to recover. The two of you discuss the Alliance and your plans for after Arcann is defeated. Valkorion admits that he doesn't know if he will remain in your mind forever or eventually fade away. As the two of you talk, you arrive within the Engineers' territory. You fight your way through until you reach the Engine Room which is set out like a treasury.
In the middle of the room is a rotund twi'lek man, Ral Ekval, sitting on a throne made up of scrap metal. He sends his goons to attack you and you fight them off. You then speak to Ral, who smugly explains that only his people can run Asylum. Without him, the station would fall from orbit and be sucked into the gas giant. You then have a choice:
Whichever you choose, Satele makes her way inside with Alliance back-up to help you. If you chose to kill or imprison Ral, Satele notes that it will be hard to find anyone who could replace him and that she would ask Hylo to talk to her contacts. As this happens, you get an emergency broadcast from Theron, stating that Koth and the Gravestone have gone missing and have been spotted in the Spire.
You return to the Alliance base to meet with the War Council, deciding that a major assault would be too costly at this point. Instead, you will lead a small strike team into the Spire to retrieve Koth and the Gravestone. At this point, you're able to choose from the companions you have acquired to join you on the mission by performing different tasks:
Depending on who you pick to lead the distraction team, you gain Alliance Influence with the Republic, the Underworld or the Empire.
With the positions set, you start your assault, landing within the Old World and fighting your way through to an elevator that leads up into the Spire. This is the first time you get to actually see the splendors of the Spire but it doesn't last long as alarms start to blare out. As you go, you receive reports from the other members of your team, with SCORPIO providing overviews on security movements and Jorgan/Vette/Kaliyo/Pyron and Hylo providing updates on their conflict.
You make your way through the streets of the Spire, fighting through Skytroopers as you approach the palace. You fight through knights as you make your way through the palace towards the throne room. You reach the throne room where you are met by Arcann, alongside a group of Knights. You also see Vaylin, standing at her brother's side and Koth in manacles. Depending on whether Koth's Alliance Influence score is above or below a certain amount (heavily affected by your choices within Chapter 9 but also affected by other choices within the story), Koth will either have been captured while trying to pick up more refugees or he will have betrayed you, attempting to join forces with Arcann, who believes him to be a spy and had him locked up. Either way, you speak with Arcann, who seems strange. He is angered by your presence, claiming that you were an agent of Vitiate come to destroy him. He demands the Knights execute you and draws his own lightsaber, ready to fight. If you have Senya with you, she will attempt to talk him out of it, but this only enrages him further as he claims you have turned his mother to the darkness. You ready yourself for a fight, but before you can, Vaylin suddenly screams and the entire room begins to shake and shudder, windows smashing and the thin bridge to the throne collapsing, taking some of the knights with it. The throne room begins to fall apart and you are forced to retreat, bringing Koth with you.
You receive confirmation that the others have captured the Gravestone and you make your way towards the ship. You get onboard the Gravestone with your companion and Koth while Hylo takes off, escaping Zakuul. No one seems to know the cause of the sudden damage to the throne room.
With the danger passed, you're able to turn your attention to Koth. Regardless of whether he betrayed you or simply got captured, you're given the choice to let him go, imprison him or kill him. If you let him go after he betrays you, he agrees to exile himself. Otherwise, he will return to the Alliance. You return to Asylum and speak with the War Council who have mixed feelings. While some are happy about the victory, however minor, others believe that this will only harden Arcann's resolve.
This is where Part 4 will end, since I've already massively surpassed my 5000ish word limit for these posts. I felt like this worked as a pretty good 'midpoint' for the story. The theme of this section of Chapters is about building up the Alliance into a better fighting force. The next section will delve into deconstructing Arcann's powerbase some more and then getting to the grand finale. Laughably, I thought I could get away with 4 parts when I started writing all this but that clearly isn't the case.
This last chapter is fun because it gets you your first real look at Arcann since the start and you get to see his deterioration as he becomes more paranoid and cruel. It also includes the first seeds of Vaylin's storyline. I've also included a trope I really enjoyed when it was used in the class stories where each of your allies is doing something, with the twist of you picking and choosing for a few roles. There's also the whole bit with the Engineers which is more throwaway, but I thought some light adventure would be fun and I felt like I should bring Valkorion back for a bit. I've already gone on long enough though, so I'll finish with a TL;DR.

TL;DR

submitted by Magmas to swtor [link] [comments]

Basic NPC card structure in Unicorn Robot Party

Basic NPC card structure in Unicorn Robot Party
Hi guys,
You may have seen my earlier posts about my card game, Unicorn Robot Party.
Initially I had planned for this to be a printable card game, however I am now working towards making it a digital card based game instead as I feel that this will meet the goals of the game better.
I am going to break down an NPC card in this post but first I will provide some background info about Unicorn Robot Party for those who don't yet know about my game.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
ABOUT UNICORN ROBOT PARTY
Unicorn Robot Party is a digital card based game aimed at adults that has story, RPG and deckbuilding elements. Topically the game focuses around robots and unicorns.
This game is a game where your decisions matter and could be compared to a choose your own adventure book or a game like Detroit Become Human in this regard.
It also has RPG elements and combat systems.
Unicorn Robot Party has both a Story Co-op mode and a PVP mode.
The game has a Base Game currently in development and it will also have expansions / DLC. The Story mode is designed to have multiple stories over the Base Game and its expansions with connections between them. Expansions can add extra cards, another story, or both.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT IS AN NPC CARD?
An NPC is a non-player character within the game. Some NPCs within the game have their own NPC cards. I intend for these cards to remain part of the game even when the game goes digital and NPCs don't necessarily need cards anymore but how much detail remains on the cards is yet to be determined.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
NPC CARD: MYLO
Here you can see a card for an NPC named Mylo.

https://preview.redd.it/gm8xnscyoc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=4676fb68ff31b37572228b3344c93bc4e37080c7
There is a lot of information on this card. Let's break it down further.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
THE NPC NAME, SPECIES AND HP

https://preview.redd.it/ajfs8ku0pc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f77aacab6f97f9a631f1e46da67db231185018b
Highlighted in the image above is Mylo's name (Mylo), Species and HP.
Mylo's species is Kobold. The Kobolds in Unicorn Robot Party are based on traditional kobolds, that is the sprites stemming from Germanic Mythology. They are not lizard like or dog like, unlike some more recent depictions of kobolds.
There are a variety of species within the universe of Unicorn Robot Party and that part of the card states the species of the NPC.
The next component of the card is on the same line as the NPC's species. This is their HP, or Health value. As you can see, Mylo's HP is 65.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Sex, Gender, Life Stage and Image

https://preview.redd.it/i2o3xp05pc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=98763b86c26ff6e728fe2b5153044ef5e915a774

Highlighted in the image above is the next set of information that makes up an NPC card.
Mylo's sex, gender, life stage and image are highlighted.
While sex and gender refer to different things, many things will only use one. Part of the reason Unicorn Robot Party uses both is that robot characters by nature kind of make sex not a good measure and not all creatures have gender either so it works best with both.
Robots don't have sex because sex refers to the biological markers of male and female such as chromosomes, hormones, body hair, genitals, fat distribution, reproductive organs etc and robots don't have any of those things. Robots don't have sex. They could be designed to look like a stereotypical male or female body but they don't have biology at all, hence they don't have a biological sex. This makes sex alone not a good way of describing characters in my game.


Pixabay profile of person who made this picture: https://pixabay.com/users/bcogwene-1114581/
On the other hand, many creatures probably don't have gender. Gender used in this way (to denote male, female or other genders) is generally referring to gender identity, which is a personal sense of one's own gender. It's a personal sense of being male or being female or being something other than male or female. This is an internal thing but it isn't the same as sex. As far as I know, we don't know which other creatures have gender because while we can speculate based on a species' understanding of other things like their general sense of self, we can't really know if they have the concept of gender. Creatures in Unicorn Robot Party vary from animals and beasts through to creatures who are comparable to humans cognitively. This shows that gender alone is not a good way of describing characters in my game either.
The other option is to do away with it completely but I'd rather have the two categories for this than have no category for this at all. I decided to use both.
I have classified sex with M for male, F for female, NA for not applicable (such as robots and other individuals who have no sex characteristics) and B for both to cover both intersex individuals within a species and species that are either both sexes or can change sex.
I have classified gender as M for Male, F for female, NB for non-binary (genders that do not fit into the strict gender binary of male or female; includes gender identities such as agender or genderfluid but is also a valid label on its own) and NA for not applicable.
As I went along it seemed that maybe sex may not have been required and I could have just used gender, as I found I didn't want to draw the line and say "this species doesn't have a concept of gender so their gender is NA" and ended up putting the gender of species that might not have gender as being that they had the same gender as their sex. This seemed like it might make including sex in the cards moot but I decided sex still adds valuable and interesting info for some species. Some species, both in real life and in mythology, have fascinating biology in terms of their sex. Some species can change sex. Some are both male and female throughout their whole life. Some are male or female but have characteristics you would generally associate with the opposite sex. While the corresponding fascinating fact is not communicated by simply putting a M, F, NA or B in the sex category, it alludes to an interesting fact and it feels like its a significant enough aspect of some of those species that it should not be excluded from the card, especially given it fits on the same line as gender and life stage anyway.
Hence, my cards state both sex and gender. The character sheets / character profiles of player characters also have both sex and gender, because they are different to each other but both are important.
Sex and gender have been used throughout the story when I have had male or female characters involved in the actual story. In these cases, if instructions have followed that bit of story, I have written instructions such as these: "Draw NPC cards until you get 2 gnomes, one of which must be male in sex or gender."
Choosing the correct NPCs can be done digitally in a digital game and would likely have to be done earlier than it would in the story I created for a printable game, but it still relies on the sex and / or gender of the NPCs.

Image by Mote Oo Education from Pixabay

Following sex and gender is the life stage of the NPC. These come in 4 categories: Child, Teen and Adult. The way robots fit into this is different to how other beings fit into this as robots don't have a life cycle and hence don't have the same sort of life stages that other living beings do.
Following the life stage is a picture of the NPC. Mylo does not currently have a picture.
______________________________________________________________________________________
SKILLS

https://preview.redd.it/j0w5ygjepc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=11e6cbdd28db5a7c72cc256d47563b88008d3130
Highlighted in the above image are Mylo's skills. The skills of the NPCs are simpler than the player character skills.

NPCs have seven skills:
  • Strength
  • Coordination
  • Social Understanding
  • Charm
  • Intimidate
  • Logic
  • Perception

Player characters have a similar set of skills but also have subskills and they are arranged a bit differently. Player characters have these skills and subskills (subskills are indented):
  • Strength
  • Coordination
    • Gross Motor
    • Fine Motor
  • Social Understanding
    • Benefit Them
    • Benefit You
    • Benefit Both
  • Presence
    • Charm
    • intimidate
  • Logic
  • Perception

As you can see, there are only six main skills for a player character because Charm and Intimidate are subskills of Presence for player characters. However once you add the subskills, the player characters have skills with significantly more depth.
Player characters also have a kindness skill which starts at 0 but can increase and decrease over time.

https://preview.redd.it/twm5fqwhpc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=e60d3d11882522b4a16afea95a69122b94fafe7f
Returning to the image, you can see that the first column of Mylo's skills is the name of the skill.
The second column includes the dice allocated to the skill. These are the dice that will be rolled when Mylo uses the skill.
The final column is for modifiers. This might for example give a character a +1 to their strength roll. The modifiers of the NPCs are partially based on their interactions with the player characters. I had designed the NPCs modifiers to only apply for defensive rolls (ie when rolling against an action the player character did) as opposed to when they initiate an action, because the cards only have room for one modifier for each skill and for some things it makes sense for them to have an altered modifier for defence but not for their own actions. However making this as a digital game may change this and allow two modifiers per skill, one for defensive actions and one for actions the character initiates.
The way I have designed it has the modifier part of the cards blank until the players have interacted with them. Interactions between player characters and NPCs have the ability to change the modifier by making the NPC more or less willing to interact with them in certain ways in the future. In my planned digital version of the game this will still be the case, but there may be separate modifiers for defence and initiating actions, and they may also gain modifiers in other ways also.
That is the whole of the skills table. I don't completely know yet, but I suspect the skills table will likely be removed in a digital version of the game. It was included in the printable game because it told the players what the NPC needed to roll in order to do actions or defend themselves against certain actions the player characters could do, but this can all be done behind the scenes in the programming in a digital game and I feel that not seeing this has benefit because it makes it harder to predict whether an action is likely to be successful against a target. The logic behind the skill table will still be similar, with some likely differences like the ones I described above when discussing modifiers, but the information will likely not be available.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
Friendship Circles
https://preview.redd.it/n5xo0j6lpc951.png?width=354&format=png&auto=webp&s=1c821e879a05b4da374f41555417e5331694a9c8
Highlighted in the image above is Mylo's Friendship Circles. It is possible to become friends with the NPCs. To do this, you need to colour in all of the friendship circles on an NPC's card. Mylo has three. Certain actions can class as a positive social interaction and lead to colouring in one of these friendship circles. If you were to colour in all three of Mylo's friendship circles, Mylo would now be your friend.
In the original printable game, once you got all the circles for an NPC coloured you would keep them out of the NPC deck in a separate friendship deck. This will be automated in the new digital game.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
CONCLUSION
And that's it. That's the entirety of an NPC card. The main change to the NPC cards going from the printable card game I originally envisioned to the digital version of the game will be the removal of the skills table. The rest will likely remain as is, with some artistic rearrangement of the elements.

To summarise the major bits of info that I envision will be on an NPC card within a digital version of the game are:
  • Name
  • Species
  • HP (Health)
  • Sex
  • Gender
  • Life Stage
  • Image
  • Friendship Circles
The skills will still be important and affect the underlying mechanics but may not be displayed on the card.

Thank you for checking out my post and for reading about the NPC card structure within Unicorn Robot Party.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
LINKS
Vote for my next ORTI character here: https://poll.ly/#/LBp54z3X
Birchmark Website / Portfolio: http://birchmark.com.au/
Redbubble: https://www.redbubble.com/people/birchmark?asc=u
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/BirchmarkAu
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Thank you for reading!
Please consider commenting or upvoting this post if you enjoyed it.
submitted by birchmark to u/birchmark [link] [comments]

KSP Loading... The KSP franchise expands

KSP Loading... The KSP franchise expands
https://preview.redd.it/oktt58zznfj31.png?width=4452&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc538b82daf11fc8ca0e88a575f4d7b7ab754b24
Welcome to our official newsletter, KSP Loading…! If you want to learn about all the current developments of the KSP franchise, then this is the place to be!

Kerbal Space Program 2

Last week at the opening night of Gamescom we announced the forthcoming sequel and newest addition to our franchise, Kerbal Space Program 2! This sequel will be expanding upon what makes Kerbal Space Program great and will bring space exploration to the next generation with exciting new features that will delight veteran and new players alike.

We’re excited to introduce you to Star Theory Games, the developer studio behind Kerbal Space Program 2!

Learn about the new development team joining the franchise by watching the Developer Story Trailer. Watch our Cinematic Trailer below to see what we’ll be bringing to KSP2!
So what can you expect in 2020, when Kerbal Space Program 2 comes out of the VAB? These are just some of the features, you’ll be able to enjoy:
https://preview.redd.it/tiuan8ojofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bdd332ea7fb312fb12f389a1807edd581170b9d1

Improved Onboarding

Rocket science can be a bit overwhelming sometimes and one of the things that Star Theory has set their minds towards is helping facilitate newcomers on their journey to become space explorers. With new animated tutorials, improved UI, and fully revamped assembly and flight instructions, it will be easier than ever to put your creativity to the test, all without sacrificing any of the challenge from the original game.
https://preview.redd.it/rhjltkzlofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b90c58bd2e09b420fb5f02f745524a63bcec381b

Next Generation Technology

Kerbal technology is taking major steps forward in Kerbal Space Program 2. With next-generation engines, parts, fuel, and much more, prepare to venture farther within and beyond the original star system!
https://preview.redd.it/3nxvx6noofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=01bc8bc6de13a1c6256c8df1f237652e624c287b
https://preview.redd.it/zezmj9noofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7119710cf21289063359a81f4f10a7ea01bc7d09

Colonies

Long term colonization of celestial bodies has become a priority for Kerbalkind. Gather resources to construct buildings, space stations, and habitations, as well as find and process unique fuel types. Eventually, these colonies become advanced enough for vehicle construction, propelling them towards deep space and beyond. It’s time for Kerbals to become a type 2 civilization!
https://preview.redd.it/oy6559mqofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2ff5bf472e5dc32cfc36f122b7a37ea28f071a6a

Interstellar Travel

With their next-gen tech, colonies, and resource gathering, Kerbals will reach new levels of exploration: interstellar travel. That’s right, in Kerbal Space Program 2, you’ll be able to discover extrasolar systems with whole new celestial bodies to explore. Among them: Charr, a heat-blasted world of iron; Ovin, a ringed super-Earth with relentless gravity; Rask and Rusk, a binary pair locked in a dance of death; and many more to reward exploration. What mysteries await in these alien worlds? It will be up to you to find out!
https://preview.redd.it/4oeqxn8wofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=303f4a7178cfe7d8988673e7a072b714c5eb2aa8
https://preview.redd.it/irt8ho8wofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1ae34f9ab36853fd0bb381222e48941b4a7cca2c

MultiplayeModding

Modding has always been an essential part of KSP and with Kerbal Space Program 2 it will continue to be so. The technological developments made to the foundations of Kerbal Space Program 2 will build on the beloved modding capabilities of the original game, as well as deliver on the long-requested addition of multiplayer. Soon players will be able to share the challenges of deep space exploration. We’ll reveal more details on these and more features at a later time, so stay tuned!
https://preview.redd.it/qa5izxzxofj31.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ffd62656ba65ce0b2a66edc00c0b83ae401926ee
Click here to see these and more screenshots in high-res.

PAX West 2019

Want to see the behind-closed-doors presentation of KSP 2 gameplay? Come by booth 1909 during normal show hours to chat with the developers, take a photo with the Jeb statue, see the presentation, and grab a PAX West exclusive KSP Flag! If you take a photo there be sure to tag @KerbalSpaceP and use #BuildFlyDream.

Kerbal Space Program Update 1.8

We are all very excited for what’s coming in 2020, but until then, there is still plenty of KSP for everyone to enjoy! Squad will continue to support the current game, and as some of you may have seen, there is some really cool stuff coming in the next update for the game [Click here to read Squad’s statement in regard to the KSP 2 announcement.
Squad’s goal will always be to provide the best experience for all KSP players. The gameplay experience will be improved even further for KSP1 with the 1.8 update. Here are some more details of what you can look forward to in this latest update.

Celestial Body Visual Improvements

If you’ve been following KSP on social media, you might have already learned that new high-quality texture maps & graphic shaders are being implemented for various celestial bodies. In update 1.8 you’ll find high quality texture maps for Mun, Duna and a few other Celestial Bodies that will be revealed along the way.
If there are any concerns that the update might hinder the game’s performance on your computers, rest easy knowing you’ll be able to select the celestial bodies’ shader quality in the settings to low (legacy), medium or high. Even for the legacy option, you can expect texture stretching errors to be vastly improved. With the high-quality option, pixel density will be maintained regardless of camera distance to the celestial body, as well as a lack of tiling problems. All in all, celestial bodies will look sharper and more realistic. Take a look for yourself.

Unity Upgrade

Update 1.8 brings an improvement that Squad has wanted to introduce for some time now - an upgrade to the underlying engine of the game to Unity 2019.2
With this upgrade there are some long-desired performance and graphic improvements, some of which come out of the box, and some which will allow further enhancements down the road.
These include:
  • KSP will now run under DX11 on the Windows platform (DX9 will no longer be supported) which allows many graphical improvements, such as those on the planetary textures.
  • A new PhysX version with the associated performance and precision improvements.
  • GPU instancing to improve rendering performance.
  • Incremental garbage collection to reduce frame rate stutters, particularly in modded installs.
  • And many others.
While this version will have a larger impact on many mods, more than 1.6 or 1.7, the process has been tested and is relatively fast. Still, there will be several changes, due to the introduction of the Roslyn compiler, which brings full C#7 support and moving to full .NET 4.x API (.NET 3.5 support is deprecated). There will be continued efforts to reduce significant impact for Modders, but the belief is this time around the benefits of this upgrade far outweigh the drawbacks.

New Parts for Breaking Ground

Update 1.8 will also include some exclusive treats for owners of the Breaking Ground Expansion. A new set of fan blades and shrouds will continue to push the creativity of KSP players even further. By combining these fan blades with small electrical rotors and the new shrouds, you’ll be able to increase the performance and thrust of your propellers. Use them to create drones, ducted fan jets, or anything you can imagine.
https://preview.redd.it/xkmjt3dxnfj31.png?width=2500&format=png&auto=webp&s=7d890da8c1776785e8deee5dc25ab2dbf6486990
Improvements are also being made to robotic part resource consumption, with better info on consumption and new improved options for power-out situations.
Remember, you can share and download crafts and missions on Curse, KerbalX, the KSP Forum and the KSP Steam Workshop.
That’s it for this edition. Be sure to join us on our official forums, and don’t forget to follow us on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. Stay tuned for more exciting and upcoming news and development updates!
Happy launchings!
submitted by UomoCapra to KerbalSpaceProgram [link] [comments]

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

https://preview.redd.it/se7zt100k9c31.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b7d9eb97754935764b044d2dd31900c6106efab5
Подборка временно бесплатных курсов Udemy.122 шт. Промокоды, вшиты в ссылки.Все курсы на английском.

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  6. Create A SHMUP With Unity 3D
  7. Google Cloud Platform Associate Cloud Engineer Practice Test
  8. How To Create Android Apps Without Coding Advance Course
  9. How to Install Linux Mint (Cinnamon) on a Virtual Machine
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12. Introduction To SAS
13. iOS 12 Chat Application Like WhatsApp And Viber
14. iOS App Grocery List (Swift 3.1, iOS10.3) From 0 To AppStore
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  1. JavaScript & LeetCode | The Ultimate Interview Bootcamp
  2. Learn Angular 8 By Creating A Simple Full Stack Web App
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  21. Leadership Wisdom - Advanced Leadership Strategies
  22. Use your perfectionism to be more successful at work
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  24. Blender Beginners Guide To 3D Modeling Game Asset Pipeline Design
  25. Citrix 1Y0-371 Designing Deploying Managing Citrix Exam IT & Software
  26. Complete Whiteboard Video Creation With VideoScribe: 2019 Design
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  28. Learn Cinema 4D: Low Poly Tree Design
  29. Learn Illustrator CC: Create Simple Flat Vector Characters Design
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  32. Camtasia Studio 9: Become a Video Editing Guru With Camtasia
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  34. 10 Facebook Marketing Hacks That Work In 2019
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  37. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  38. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing: NO Cost, No Website - Proven
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  42. Email Marketing Mastery to Earn More & Build a Huge List
63. Facebook Ads 101. Complete Facebook Ads & Marketing Course
  1. Facebook Marketing: Advanced Targeting Strategies
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  4. Fraud Analytics Using R & Microsoft Excel
  5. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  6. Google Analytics For Beginners 2019
  7. Google Analytics For WordPress to Track Your Website Traffic
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Источник: Телеграм-канал WScoupon
submitted by abbelrus to Pikabu [link] [comments]

It's not free talk sunday but....

...but: There once was this kid that got his C64 and played Giana Sisters or Maniac Mansion. Later on his first PC he played stuff like Monkey Island or Wolfenstein, Duke Nukem and Doom. He also played Half-Life and this add-on called Counter Strike, but over time he built a life, became and IT professional and began to write software. Over all those years he didn’t play anymore until 2016 when his younger brothers told him about PUBG.
Yeah and that’s where my story begins again. I was playing PUBG and I liked it, but shit was off. People knew where I was and had god like aim. I couldn’t explain it back then and I was pointed towards Twitch.tv where I started watching streamers.
Nevertheless I always felt like people were cheating. Even streamers on stream. It was just looking to weird to me. I talked to my younger brothers and they always said it would look fine and I should check what some CS:GO pros pull off.
So I started watching these things as well and I also noted weird behavior there. It’s the mechanical movements that nobody can explain to me. Most of the people even don’t really seem to see them. It’s like flicks, I called them “SNAPPING” until now, that are so fast, that the whole picture is shaking and that cannot be human. They just can’t.
During my career as software developer I programmed some robots. No, not aim-bots. Real robots in car factories. And when you do that you learn pretty fast how stupid those machines are. Especially when it comes to movement. You work in a 3D environment and when the bot has to move from one point to another it always chooses the direct path. But if the bot is actually welding the car, and has to go to a different point in the room, then the car might be in the way and you have to create additional positions that the bot has to move to, before it can reach the final position.
And those movements look 1:1 like the aim-bot shit I see a lot in FPS.
The arm moves slowly and smooth to a certain position but the change of the direction or the stop of movement is so abrupt and final that it doesn’t look human at all.
I didn’t really give anything to it anymore because people called me crazy. And then in October 2018, Black Ops 4 happened. I love the game. To me Black Ops 4 is what CS:GO probably is to the most of you. The multiplayer gives me everything I want. Fast paced, dying is part of the game idea and it just rocks my world. Dunno how else to describe it. I fell in love with it after sitting in battle royale lobbies just to die 30 seconds after I touched ground for way to long.
Knowing I’m an old fart and my reactions not being the best anymore, I’m still playing the game and love it. But I started noting totally overpowered players and began to call them out.
While some were really pissed, others didn’t even try to hide it and that’s when I began to look deeper into this. After using my Google-Fu I found some Forums where people are sharing/selling certain hacks for all kinds of FPS. Even those that have been officially lawyer-ed away, are still sold …
I also started to create videos and post them in the BlackOps4 sub after Treyarch began to respond to those videos and that’s when the fun began. To me, all the stuff happened that happened to u/The_Concept. I was called an idiot, been told hundreds of times people aren’t cheating, nothing is visible in the videos and so on. Even in game people started to tell me these things. Especially certain clans seem to be highly motivated to make me believe nobody is cheating. But when you’re a guy that comes from a mathematics and IT background and you’re more the evidence than the believer kind of person, your mindset and your opinion don’t change just because people are telling you something that you just don’t see.
Look at this:
https://np.reddit.com/Blackops4/comments/afpeb1/cheaters_i_found_20190113/
https://np.reddit.com/Blackops4/comments/afc5h7/cheaters_one_of_todays_encounters/
I started to post these after this happened:
https://np.reddit.com/Blackops4/comments/adna4c/treyarch_beenox_have_given_up_trying_to_stop/
https://np.reddit.com/Blackops4/comments/aeex33/cheater_on_pc_one_of_the_many_i_have_added/
I wonder if this is going to help with it:
https://np.reddit.com/Blackops4/comments/ag6ey7/pc_players_post_stories_or_videos_of_cheaters_read/
But anyway. Why am I writing here?
I was looking into this stuff and it’s actually harder to get your hands on information than you would think. So I found some videos that finally lead me to u/The_Concept ‘s YouTube channel and the really really good explanation of aim-bot anomalies.
When watching that video I realized that I couldn’t name a lot of things that I was seeing either and I’m just going to use the terminology he invented in the future. It’s like in science. Somebody just opens a new field of science and starts giving things names. And I guess that’s what u/The_Concept did there with his video.
But there’s one thing that I learned over the last few months that is even worse:
Hacking has become so common that people like my younger brothers, who are around 20 years old, don’t know what it looks like without any hacking or cheating anymore. They think the mechanical movements are totally normal and nothing that is out of place at all. Even showing them the aim-bot video, they couldn’t see it at some points while others seemed clear but it was hard to believe that this is really a thing.
That’s actually the worst of it all. I think when the pros would stop cheating, people would start complaining about bad aim-bots because the aim looks so weird.
Don’t get me wrong here. I don’t think all people on this planet are stupid. I just think that people like to think that what they see is right and that most of the people don’t like to questions things. They’re like sheep in a herd and that’s it.
I just hope that this cheating epidemic can be pushed back to a level that is acceptable again.
By the way I also watched other videos on u/The_Concept ‘s YouTube. And when it comes to making cheating impossible on a LAN tournament, Windows offers everything that is necessary to make that happen.
Since Windows 2000, there are certain system settings that push Windows into modes where it cannot be tempered with. The OS becomes unchangeable because Windows either boots out of a virtual image that is stored on a hard drive, or because it boots with an overlay over the real file system, storing all changes in a different location. When you reboot, that location is just not used anymore and overwritten and all the changes from the last boot are gone. The former is actually used on tablets running Windows 10, the latter has been made public with the “Shared Computer Toolkit” by Microsoft. It’s now builtin with Windows 10 and can be enabled if necessary.
There’s also the option to turn on signed only software. That means, that only binaries that are signed with a certificate, which is considered valid, can be run. Those certificates can be stored in the system wide certification store, that a normal user cannot modify. Especially with the option from above, it becomes unchangeable.
Enable these two options on a computer for a tournament, even on a machine that is used for training purposes with internet access before the tournament, and nobody will be able to start any cheat at all on any of those machines.
Since Windows 2000 and especially Windows XP, the whole Windows line has become one big line of operating systems that also include the server versions. And a lot of those features are shared across all the versions, including “home”, which makes Windows much, MUCH more powerful, when it comes to locking down an OS than Linux or any BSD out there.
It’s impressive when you look into it and see the possibilities. But these things aren’t really touched at all, because they can cause all kinds of problems when it comes to bigger IT environments. But a LAN tournament where all that has to work is CS:GO? That’s a setup that is as easy as it gets.
You don’t need any hardware here. Just Windows itself and a few settings. And together with technologies, also by Microsoft and for free, like MDT, you can create and provide images for all kinds of situations that are untouchable and unchangeable to any player.
And hey, while they’re playing, the awesome feature of RPC, which is basically built into anything Windows, that even allows DDE over the network, gives you ways to look at the process lists of the OS live, while people are playing the tournament without any kind of performance penalty.
You can monitor all machines and if there’s a process on one machine running that isn’t there on the other machines, you can pause the game and go check what’s going on.
Hell I’ll write you a Powershell script that does that and sends an alarm within ten minutes.
To give you an idea, read this:
This is about software restriction policies that can be used to only allow signed binaries, or even just certain binaries at all, independent if they’re signed or not. If the path and the hash don’t match, you loose.
https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/datacentersecurity/2018/03/10/default-code-integrity-policy-for-windows-serve
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/security/threat-protection/security-policy-settings/system-settings-use-certificate-rules-on-windows-executables-for-software-restriction-policies
This technology is constantly evolving, but it’s there since Windows 2000.
This is the guest mode operation on Windows 10:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/configuration/set-up-shared-or-guest-pc
This is the Shared Computer Toolkit with a few screenshots. It’s actually so old that I wasn’t able to find anything on microsoft.com anymore.
https://microsoft-shared-computer-toolkit-for-windows-xp.soft32.com
Note the Step 1 that prepares the disk for Windows Disk Protection.
The software was later renamed to Windows Steady State for Windows XP and evolved over time till it became completely integrated into the main operating system.
And here is a bit about the newer native boot feature of later Windows versions including Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016+:
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/manufacture/desktop/boot-to-vhd--native-boot--add-a-virtual-hard-disk-to-the-boot-menu
And that’s just the tip of the iceberg.
So if you’re concerned about cheating on LAN tournaments and think that it cannot be prevented, let me know. I show you in video how it all works.
Ah, btw, did I mention Sandboxes? It’s something that will become part of Windows 10 in the future, but is already there for decades…
https://www.sandboxie.com
These things have different names, but have been created on BSD roughly thirty years ago as so called “Jails”. They evolved and became “change roots” on Linux and later so called containers like Docker or LXC.
But in the end it’s always a jail where you can run software and prevent access from the software to the main system and vice versa.
Cu
I hope the post is accepted now. I changed links to the NP-reddit domains. Fingers crossed.
Cu
submitted by BuntStiftLecker to VACsucks [link] [comments]

Software you would like to see added to HomelabOS?

Note, this is not intended to be an ask that anyone do anything to add this software to HomelabOS. Rather it's intended to capture the list of software I want to add eventually. Perhaps it will be of interest to others. I'm also curious to see what's on other people's lists.
Here's my top 3:
Media
Payments
Security
Collaboration
Communication
Pastebin
Filesharing
Search
Sysadmin
Accounting
submitted by cat-gun to HomelabOS [link] [comments]

[Steam] Winter Sale- Hidden Gems II; The Eleventh Hour

Personal Note: If you found any other hidden gems, or just have something to say, say it in the comments! It's the eleventh hour and people can actually hear you now!

Inspired somewhat by the recent post of Hidden Gems, I found that it's largely become completely congested. As such, I'll coalesce a lot of the deals posted by the guys there here, instead. I'll add others in case I find any of them in the original thread.
Personal Favorites
Puzzle Games found by crabbit
Random picks by ND1Razor
Unusual Games found by thelazyreader2015
RPGs loved by thelazyreader2015
Games Thrice Reposted by ParanoidAndroid1309
strikan33 posts the base list
With some other titles, Art4dinner recommends:
Gramis Silently slides:
A small list by thinkforaminute
Story rich, atmospheric game dragged into the light by BabyMustache
Less than a quid by Dux0r
A list of openish world RPGS from thelazyreader2015
Wishlist and personal favorites from gpt999
Misc Recommendations
With the large quantity of the old deals posted, I'd love to see any other hidden gems there might be out there. I'll post the two major things from the previous thread (The massive posts on Coop games and the massive post on games less than three dollars) below, and I'll post any other collections or mild reccomendations I find above.
submitted by Ullyses_R_Martinez to GameDeals [link] [comments]

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